Cellulosic Ethanol

In nature, ruminant livestock use slow enzymatic digestive processes to break grass into glucose (sugar). In existing cellulosic ethanol laboratories, various experimental processes are being developed to mirror the natural process in order to release sugars which can be fermented to make ethanol fuel. Scientists have believed that it would take another 4–5 years for mass production to be commercially viable, though still dependent on subsidies.

Anagenesis Renewable Energy (ARE) has effectively solved the problem and is fully set to mass-produce cost-effective (2G) cellulosic ethanol today using a technique that breaks with the current need for filtering and centrifuging, and yields a plethora of valuable by-products. The distillation process is commercially viable without any subsidies, suitable and efficient for any kind of organic feedstock and agricultural waste. The very best results are achieved by using the Company’s own fast-growing, high cellulose, Anagenesis Trifolia tree*.

The resulting [Trifolia] ethanol is used in fuel blends, reducing carbon dioxide emission by up to 91% (E85) and to generate electricity, eliminating emissions altogether (100% clean; zero emissions).

*The production per acre is nearly 13 times that of corn and the positive energy ratio of 11.6, i.e. an energy output of up to 12.6 times the energy input.

Cellulosic_ethanol_image05

Cellulosic ethanol is mainly composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Corn stover, switchgrass, Miscanthus and woodchips are some of the more popular cellulosic materials for ethanol production. Cellulosic ethanol is chemically identical to ethanol from other sources, such as corn starch or sugar, but has the advantage that the lignocellulosic raw material is highly abundant and diverse. However, it differs in that it requires more extensive processing to make the sugar monomers available to the microorganisms that are typically used to produce ethanol by fermentation. The technology hitherto used to extract cellulosic ethanol (using enzymatic processes) is not financially viable without subsidies.

Fermenting sugars produce ethanol. The sugars can be derived from a variety of sources. In Brazil, sugar from sugarcane is the primary feedstock used by the huge Brazilian ethanol industry. In North America, the sugar is usually derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis (the conversion of starch to sugar) of starch contained in crops such as corn or wheat. The enzymatic hydrolysis of starch is a simple, and effective process. This well-developed process sets the baseline that other hydrolysis processes are measured against.

Albeit promising, existing corn and wheat-based ethanol production techniques suffer from various problems. The overwhelming majority of ethanol produced in the United States and European Union is derived from corn. To satisfy the targets set by both the United States and the European Union, production must increase substantially on the already vast increase of the last years. This will lead to even greater price increases in sensitive foodstuffs destined for human consumption.

Cellulosic_ethanol_image01

While this is a major disadvantage in itself, the biggest disadvantage of corn is the low energy output referenced above. Corn-based ethanol can be harvested only once a year and requires huge storage facilities. The answer is large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol, which is non-existent in the United States and the European Union at present.

Cellulosic ethanol typically refers to ethanol produced from perennial prairie grasses, such as switchgrass, which are not used for human consumption and grown on land unfit for other crops. In short, any lignocellulosic material such as agricultural hardwood and softwood residues, can be an excellent source of sugars for ethanol production. The cellulose and hemicellulose components of these materials are essentially long, molecular chains of sugars. They are protected by lignin, which is the glue that holds all of this material together. The technological hurdles that are presented by the materials are:

Cellulosic_ethanol_image03

National Geographic (October 2007) estimates that cellulosic ethanol could replace up to 13 percent of the World’s oil consumption if an efficient way to turn cellulosic plant matter into ethanol can be developed. The only currently available cellulosic ethanol technology is not financially viable without subsidies or grants. Thus, there is no production of clean, zero emissions electricity derived from cellulosic ethanol. Anagenesis Renewable Energy (ARE)* has effectively solved the problem and is fully set to mass-produce cost-effective (2G) cellulosic ethanol today.

ENERGY REQUIRED & ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION:

Anagenesis Renewable Energy (ARE) intends to use part – approximately 4% – of the ethanol produced as Cogeneration fuel, whereby highly efficient gas turbines will be powered by ethanol to generate electricity for the refinery. The overwhelming majority – approximately 96% – of the generated electrical power will be sold to the national grid or local power provider. ARE’s unique system captures the excess heat generated by the electric generators and diverts it back towards the ethanol refinery minimizing any energy losses suffered by current systems and maximizing the energy efficiency of the Closed Loop System.

ACID HYDROLYSIS CONVERSION OF CELLULOSIC BIOMASS TO ETHANOL

Anagenesis Renewable Energy (ARE), part of the Anagenesis Group, is ready to deploy a unique patent pending, cost-efficient and financially viable system to extract large volumes of cellulosic ethanol from Anagenesis Trifolia trees.

ARE’s unique and patented distillation process combines fermentation, hydrolysis, a fusion of acids and the latest Information Technology (IT) advances. Anagenesis’ Cellulosic Ethanol System is highly efficient and inexpensive to operate as compared to enzymatic processes. The requisite constituents in our process are:

  1. Cellulosic feedstock (tree trunks, leaves, branches, etc)
  2. A specific combination of acids & catalytic solvents and
  3. A plentiful supply of heat and water.

Nothing goes to waste; the water can be reused again and again, the heat is recovered from electric Cogeneration and the residue is processed to yield a variety of valuable high-demand by-products used in industries ranging from food, health and medicine to agricultural. ARE’s system is inexpensive to run and financially viable even without subsidies. The fast turnaround method with low running production costs achieves an average energy output of nearly 13 times (equal to approximately 1,160% energy gain) the input in the production of cellulosic ethanol as opposed to a mere 1.3 times (equal to a 30% energy gain) in corn and other starch-based feedstocks.

Cellulosic_ethanol_image04

The ARE pilot facility, currently under construction in Georgia (USA), will produce 15 million American gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year. This refinery has been designed to allow maximum flexibility whereby the production can be diverted to electric generation or to motor fuel production at the flick of a switch depending on specific demand and prevailing market prices. The system is flexible enough to produce cellulosic ethanol from any type of organic feedstock and agricultural waste. However, results are optimized by using the patent pending Anagenesis Trifolia trees due to their very high – 69% – cellulose content which is easily extractable. Final planning is currently taking place for the construction of a major facility producing 100 million American gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year in Greece. Plans are underway for a similar facility in Bulgaria and Russia while additional locations are being considered.

ARE’s unique and revolutionary system will demonstrate that commercial production of cellulosic ethanol and green e lectricity can be achieved in a financially viable and responsible manner, minimizing running costs and yielding substantial profits even if current subsidies are abolished.

Key_characteristics_table02

Green Electricity

Electricity, as one of the two main sources of revenue, is bought by local Electricity Authorities or directly by the State or Country (e.g. Greece) where the project is operational. ATC can harvest Anagenesis Trifolias at will, therefore also produce ethanol and electricity at will, allowing it to focus on peak hours achieving a higher selling price per kWh. Storage spaces are kept to a minimum because harvesting is all year round and, unlike corn or other crops, the trees do not deteriorate if they are not harvested; they will simply continue to increase in size, which in turn translates to more ethanol and more electricity.

Green_electricity_image02

Due to an extremely low cost of producing the zero emissions sustainable electricity via its revolutionary Closed Loop System, ATC is able to underbid practically any competitor when competing for (government) contracts to provide power to specific areas and still maintain an excellent profit margin.

We choose to use modular and expandable upon-demand Steam Turbine Assisted Cogeneration (STACs) that with proprietary patent pending innovative additions represent the latest Quadgeneration technology, offering efficiencies and low emissions not found in any other energy production.

Green_electricity_image01

Steam turbines are usually used in major coal and fossil fuel oil-fired stations to drive the generators or alternators. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in “boilers” or “steam generators” (as they are sometimes called). Energy in the steam – after it leaves the boiler – is converted into rotational energy. The turbine normally consists of several stages with each stage comprising a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam into kinetic energy which is then converted into forces, which cause the rotation of the turbine shaft. The rotation of the turbine shaft is translated to kinetic energy which in turn is connected to a generator, which ultimately produces the electrical energy.

Green_electricity_image03

Our unique Quadgeneration System will be coupled with a unique pipe system in which hot water/steam and chilled/frozen water can be produced simultaneously, efficiently supplying the energy required for the extraction of our valuable by-products. Weather permitting, we also plan to utilize solar energy (feasible in locations with plentiful sunshine such as Georgia (USA), Florida (USA), California (USA), Greece, Italy, Spain etc.) to capture the solar power necessary to entirely eliminate the use of any of our electricity produced to power the ethanol reactor.

In summary, the Anagenesis System converts cellulosic ethanol produced by our refinery to yield emission-free steam (gas) that is used to generate electricity that can be transmitted directly to the local grid, and provide for both the electrical and thermal needs of our Ethanol and By-Products Plant.

All of the processes involved are carried out with the outmost respect for the environment, making the Anagenesis System the ultimate environmentally friendly system and a model green enterprise.


Combined Heat, Ice, Power & Steam Quad-Generation

View CHIPS Diagram

Gasification

What is Gasification?

Gasification is a process that uses heat, pressure and steam to convert materials directly into a gas composed primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Typical raw materials used in gasification are coal, petroleum-based materials, and organic materials (e.g., food waste, agricultural waste, wood). The feedstock is prepared and fed, in either dry or slurried form, into a sealed reactor chamber called a gasifier. The feedstock is subjected to high heat, pressure and either an oxygen-rich or oxygen-starved environment within the gasifier.

Gasification is a flexible, reliable and clean energy technology that can turn a variety of feedstocks into high-value products, help reduce dependence on oil and gas, and can provide a clean alternative source of electricity, fertilizers, fuels, and chemicals.

The process of gasification converts carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting raw materials at high temperatures with a controlled amount of oxygen. The resulting mixture is called synthesis gas or syngas. Syngas can be used to generate electricity and heat or transformed into a diesel-like synthetic fuel via the Fischer Tropsch process.

According to the Gasification Technology Council in the United States, gasification has been reliably used on a commercial scale worldwide for more than 50 years in the refining, fertilizer and chemical industries, and for more than 35 years in the electric power industry.

Gasification_image01

Process of Gasification

In simple terms, a typical process of gasification works as follows: the feedstock material (e.g., biomass, such as wood) is fed into a grinder from where the material is fed into the pre-pyroliser for preheating. Next, the material flows into the pyroliser where the temperature is much higher and where the structure of the material changes from solid to liquid to gas within a few seconds; this is how the syngas is produced. The carbon-rich

residue is then transformed to hydrogen by injecting superheated steam. The resulting biogas undergoes a cleaning process: first, the solid particles are taken out, then the remaining very light particles are removed, and finally tars and oils are removed in the liquid condensing section of the equipment. After this cleaning process, the biogas goes through a final metallic filter, resulting in clean syngas which is used to power the generators to produce clean, green electricity. Any minor residue from this process is returned to the start and undergoes the same procedure again. The majority of the residue is then converted into syngas; when returned to the start of the process, it turns into semiliquid gas and converts into syngas during its second passage through the gasification process. The remaining approximately 4% of residue is dust that can be mixed with compost and used as agricultural fertilizer. Thus, using biomass for the gasification process is a clean, green, environmentally friendly method of producing electricity in a sustainable manner. It is for this reason that power generation via gasification is eligible for ROCs (Renewable Obligations Certificates) in the United Kingdom and REC (Renewable Energy Certificates) or CERs (Certified Emissions Reductions) in other parts of the world.

Gas To Liquid

Gtl_image01

By-Products

One of the major breakthroughs achieved by the Anagenesis Cellulosic Ethanol System is the fact that it does not generate any final residue. In researching the uses of the residue from the distillation, Anagenesis was able to ascertain that the residue can be broken down into a variety of extremely valuable by-products, which are widely used in the pharmaceutical, medicinal, food and beverage & agricultural industries. After intense research, it became apparent that there is substantial demand. The by-products produced will surpass the revenues of both electricity and ethanol once full production is in progress. Existing major markets are the USA, Switzerland, Germany & the UK while the volume or weight of the by-products makes them easily transportable to these places by land, sea and even air. A 30,000-acre Trifolia plantation will produce over a million metric tonnes of by-products per annum.

Agroforestry

Medicinal Herbs

An important aspect of our Agroforestry is the fact that we will be inter-planting medicinal herbs in-between the rows of the Anagenesis Trifolia trees. This will have many benefits, not least of which is the creation of microclimatic conditions.

We anticipate establishing at least 120 different herb varieties over the first 12 to 15 months of operation.

Eventually, we will gain certifications as a Certified Organic Herb Grower from the Department of Agriculture of each country where Anagenesis establishes plantations.

Initially Used Medicinal Herbs

Agroforestry_image02
  1. Scutellaria Baicalensis
  2. Agrimonia Glabra
  3. Angelica Archangelica
  4. Pimpinella Anisum
  5. Lauris Nobilis
  6. Vaccimium Myrtillus
  7. Styrax Benzoin
  8. Chlorella Pyrendoidosa
  9. Ocimum Basilicum
  10. Aloe Barbadensis

The majority of the herbs listed can be harvested three times per year depending on climatic conditions. However, we will establish the herb gardens under controlled conditions where we closely monitor and control- ground moisture, fertility, pH, etc.-thus eliminating the reliance on growth cycles in the wild.

Example

Agroforestry_image01

Scutellaria Baicalensis or Skull Cap is categorized as a potential medicinal crop for US farmers. The price of Skull Cap has steadily increased during the past five years and is currently at approx. US$13.35 per pound. The demand for Skull Cap in the world market is predicted to grow at an annual rate of 20%-30%.

Closed Loop System